Write an essay on computer virus

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Write an essay on computer virus

Superintelligence A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds.

John von Neumann, Vernor Vinge and Ray Kurzweil define the concept in terms of the technological creation of super intelligence. They argue that it is difficult or impossible for present-day humans to predict what human beings' lives would be like in a post-singularity world.

Some argue that advances in artificial intelligence AI will probably result in general reasoning systems that lack human cognitive limitations.

Others believe that humans will evolve or directly modify their biology so as to achieve radically greater intelligence. A number of futures studies scenarios combine elements from both of these possibilities, suggesting that humans are likely to interface with computersor upload their minds to computersin a way that enables substantial intelligence amplification.

Non-AI singularity[ edit ] Some writers use "the singularity" in a broader way to refer to any radical changes in our society brought about by new technologies such as molecular nanotechnology[16] [17] [18] although Vinge and other writers specifically state that without superintelligence, such changes would not qualify as a true singularity.

The means speculated to produce intelligence augmentation are numerous, and include bioengineeringgenetic engineeringnootropic drugs, AI assistants, direct brain—computer interfaces and mind uploading.

The existence of multiple paths to an intelligence explosion makes a singularity more likely; for a singularity to not occur they would all have to fail. Despite the numerous speculated means for amplifying human intelligence, non-human artificial intelligence specifically seed AI is the most popular option for organizations[ which?

Contrariwise, as the intelligences become more advanced, further advances will become more and more complicated, possibly overcoming the advantage of increased intelligence.

Each improvement must be able to beget at least one more improvement, on average, for the singularity to continue. Finally the laws of physics will eventually prevent any further improvements.

There are two logically independent, but mutually reinforcing causes of intelligence improvements: On the other hand, most AI researchers[ who? Oversimplified, [27] Moore's Law suggests that if the first doubling of speed took 18 months, the second would take 18 subjective months; or 9 external months, whereafter, four months, two months, and so on towards a speed singularity.

Hawkins [ citation needed ], responding to Good, argued that the upper limit is relatively low; Belief in this idea is based on a naive understanding of what intelligence is. As an analogy, imagine we had a computer that could design new computers chips, systems, and software faster than itself.

Would such a computer lead to infinitely fast computers or even computers that were faster than anything humans could ever build?

It might accelerate the rate of improvements for a while, but in the end there are limits to how big and fast computers can be.

We would end up in the same place; we'd just get there a bit faster. There would be no singularity. Whereas if it were a lot higher than current human levels of intelligence, the effects of the singularity would be great enough as to be indistinguishable to humans from a singularity with an upper limit.

For example, if the speed of thought could be increased a million-fold, a subjective year would pass in 30 physical seconds.

But Berglas notes that computer speech recognition is approaching human capabilities, and that this capability seems to require 0. This analogy suggests that modern computer hardware is within a few orders of magnitude of being as powerful as the human brain.

Exponential growth[ edit ] Ray Kurzweil writes that, due to paradigm shiftsa trend of exponential growth extends Moore's law from integrated circuits to earlier transistorsvacuum tubesrelaysand electromechanical computers.

write an essay on computer virus

He predicts that the exponential growth will continue, and that in a few decades the computing power of all computers will exceed that of "unenhanced" human brains, with superhuman artificial intelligence appearing around the same time.

The exponential growth in computing technology suggested by Moore's law is commonly cited as a reason to expect a singularity in the relatively near future, and a number of authors have proposed generalizations of Moore's law.

Computer scientist and futurist Hans Moravec proposed in a book [29] that the exponential growth curve could be extended back through earlier computing technologies prior to the integrated circuit. Ray Kurzweil postulates a law of accelerating returns in which the speed of technological change and more generally, all evolutionary processes [30] increases exponentially, generalizing Moore's law in the same manner as Moravec's proposal, and also including material technology especially as applied to nanotechnologymedical technology and others.

There will be no distinction, post-Singularity, between human and machine". Accelerating change According to Kurzweil, his logarithmic graph of 15 lists of paradigm shifts for key historic events shows an exponential trend Some singularity proponents argue its inevitability through extrapolation of past trends, especially those pertaining to shortening gaps between improvements to technology.

In one of the first uses of the term "singularity" in the context of technological progress, Stanislaw Ulam tells of a conversation with John von Neumann about accelerating change: One conversation centered on the ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.

write an essay on computer virus

Whenever technology approaches a barrier, Kurzweil writes, new technologies will surmount it. He predicts paradigm shifts will become increasingly common, leading to "technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history".

Oft-cited dangers include those commonly associated with molecular nanotechnology and genetic engineering. These threats are major issues for both singularity advocates and critics, and were the subject of Bill Joy 's Wired magazine article " Why the future doesn't need us ".

Solving Every Sudoku Puzzle by Peter Norvig In this essay I tackle the problem of solving every Sudoku puzzle. It turns out to be quite easy (about one page of code for the main idea and two pages for embellishments) using two ideas: constraint propagation and . The What the Hell is it Actually Called Blue Box. The cerebrum is the whole big top/outside part of the brain but it also technically includes some of the internal parts too.. Cortex means “bark” in Latin and is the word used for the outer layer of many organs, not just the initiativeblog.com outside of the cerebellum is the cerebellar cortex. And the outside of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex. Pearson Prentice Hall and our other respected imprints provide educational materials, technologies, assessments and related services across the secondary curriculum.

These improvements would make further improvements possible, which would make further improvements possible, and so on. The mechanism for a recursively self-improving set of algorithms differs from an increase in raw computation speed in two ways.The technological singularity (also, simply, the singularity) is the hypothesis that the invention of artificial superintelligence (ASI) will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization..

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According to this hypothesis, an upgradable intelligent agent (such as a computer running software-based artificial general intelligence) would enter. Aug 02,  · Expert Reviewed. How to Write an Essay.

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David A. Wheeler Revised ; First version Introduction. Too many people confuse software innovations with other factors, such as the increasing speed of computer . The Six Dumbest Ideas in Computer Security. There's lots of innovation going on in security - we're inundated with a steady stream of new stuff and it all sounds like it works just great.

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COMPUTER VIRUSESCONTENTS3A bit of historyWhat is a computer virus?

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4Who writes computer viruses? 5To whose advantage computer viruses are written? 6A legal notice. Penal Code of Russian Federation 7Synopsis 8SOURCES 9Appendix 10 /5(2).

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