Short half-life corresponds to high reactivity.
Crespo-Ortiz and Ming Q. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Improvement of quality of life and survival of cancer patients will be greatly enhanced by the development of highly effective drugs to selectively kill malignant cells.
Artemisinin and its analogs are naturally occurring antimalarials which have shown potent anticancer activity. In primary cancer cultures and cell lines, their antitumor actions were by inhibiting cancer proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis.
In xenograft models, exposure to artemisinins substantially reduces tumor volume and progression.
However, the rationale for the use of artemisinins in anticancer therapy must be addressed by a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in their cytotoxic effects. The primary targets for artemisinin and the chemical base for its preferential effects on heterologous tumor cells need yet to be elucidated.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent advances and new development of this class of drugs as potential anticancer agents. Introduction Cancer remains as a life-threatening disease and a leading cause of death as its control has been difficult.
Although, a range of conventional therapies based on chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy are available, these approaches are in many cases of limited efficacy [ 1 ].
Moreover, current anticancer regimens are frequently associated with significant levels of toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance.
One major challenge to relieve cancer burden is to develop highly effective drugs with specificity on cancers but little or no side effects on normal mammalian cells. Many research projects have been focused on developing new chemotherapies either by exploring the anticancer ability of novel compounds or by assessing drugs conventionally used in other clinical diseases.
Natural products have been found to be a relevant source of novel and potent bioactive compounds with minimal side effects in vivo. Plant derivatives have been known to be effective against a range of diseases with broad antimicrobial activity, and some have also exhibited significant antitumor activity.
One of the promising compounds is artemisinin, a naturally occurring antimalarial with anticancer properties [ 2 ]. Artemisinin and its derivatives, which are commonly used in malaria therapy, have also potent anticancer activity in the nano- to-micromolar range in sensitive and drug- or radiation-resistant cell lines [ 3 — 5 ].
Importantly, artemisinin is one of the very few drugs that have been widely used as antimalarials but has no significant side effects [ 6 ] or clinical resistance, although tolerance has been reported [ 7 ]. Recently, growing amount of research has focused on the mechanisms underlying the action and response to artemisinin-like drugs.
In this review, we will revisit some of the key issues in the development of artemisinin and its analogs as anticancer agents to better understand the mechanisms of their antitumor effects from the insights of new gained knowledge.
By considering the benefits, limitations, and current and future development of artemisinins, we can then identify emerging questions and address future research needs in this promising field of cancer drug discovery.
Artemisinin and Its Derivatives Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with a 1,2,4-tiroxane ring system Figure 1.
This endoperoxide compound is extracted from the Chinese herb qinghaosu Artemisia annua or annual wormwood which was used for treating fevers for over two millennia [ 8 ].ANTIMICROBIAL COATINGS IN HEALTHCARE SETTINGS: EFFICIENCY VERSUS SAFETY.
Chair: Anne Kahru 1,2, [email protected], Co-Chair: Angela Ivask 1, [email protected] 1 National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, Tallinn, Estonia, 2 Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, Tallinn, Estonia.
Infections and infectious diseases are . After writing my first article on multivitamins titled The Best and Worst Multivitamins and How to Design Your Own, I received requests for both an article on multivitamins for seniors and for prenatal initiativeblog.comr of these are an easy feat because it is impossible to get everything you need in one pill.
Like most enzymes, the activity of catalase is highly dependent on temperature. Catalase is most effective at an optimum temperature, with less-than-optimal catalysis taking place at .
Improvement of quality of life and survival of cancer patients will be greatly enhanced by the development of highly effective drugs to selectively kill malignant cells. Artemisinin and its analogs are naturally occurring antimalarials which have shown potent anticancer activity.
In primary cancer cultures and cell lines, their antitumor actions were by inhibiting cancer proliferation.
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