The medical approach to health promotion

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Over the last centuries, the field of medicine has evolved from a disease-oriented model where individuals were seen as simple hosts for diseases, to a patient-centered approach where health professionals actively try to engage their patients in treatment decision-making. This deep change in models of care acknowledges that patients are important actors in health fulfillment.

The medical approach to health promotion

Advanced Search Abstract Advocacy has often been described as a key strategy for the achievement of health promotion aims, but multiple and conflicting definitions and usages exist.

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The concept itself may be unnecessarily intimidating. Two main goals underpin health advocacy—protection of the vulnerable representational advocacy and empowerment of the disadvantaged facilitational advocacy. This paper attempts to integrate existing models and definitions into a conceptual framework for considering the role of advocacy in addressing health inequalities.

It argues that we need to pay some attention to the diversity of values and goals of health promotion if we are to understand which models and approaches to health advocacy apply and in what context.

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This paper concludes that advocacy for health fulfils two functions: Traditionally, the ethic of the health worker is to be the protector and advocate of the patient. Today, advocates for the wellbeing of whole populations are needed International Union for Health Education, Health promotion has been described, from a global perspective, as a necessary and timely reconsideration of public health rather than a new and separate discipline Kickbusch,but in practice the two may differ at the practitioner level.

Health promotion practitioners are to be found working in a wide range of agencies and sectors: In recent years, health promotion has increasingly sought a role in the development and implementation of healthy public policy at the local, national and global level WHO, This has been, in part, a response to the perceived over-emphasis on curative medicine and the behavioural approach to disease prevention that has characterized much health policy development Kickbusch et al.

Health promotion is therefore a multi-level, multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary activity. It also The medical approach to health promotion characteristics of a visionary movement, concerned with equity and justice in society as well as environmental protection on a global scale WHO, ; WHO, Although it seems that few areas of contemporary life lack the potential for health promotion activity, the breadth of vision, arena and practice within the discipline raises questions of control and power that are not always addressed explicitly Adams and Pintus, Seedhouse, for example, points out that while health promotion may be done on request, it may also be carried out without the intended recipient or recipients asking for it Seedhouse, We therefore need to pay some attention to the underpinning values and contexts within which models and approaches to health promotion advocacy are applied.

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Advocacy has been recognized as one of three major strategies for achieving health promotion goals, the others being enablement and mediation WHO, Such action may be taken by or on behalf of individuals and groups to create living conditions conducive to health and the achievement of healthy life-styles Nutbeam, Two main goals underpin health advocacy: The potential for advocacy as a way of tackling health inequalities seems obvious, but the concept is not universally accepted.

Critics of advocacy perceive a sharp contrast between health promotion rhetoric of community participation and co-operation, and the paternalistic role of advocacy in constructing people as uninformed, ill-educated and in need of the services of interventionists who claim to know better Wenzel, Such contrasting usages are explored below in an attempt to conceptualize the field, mapping such complexities as the diversity of advocacy goals and ideologies or philosophies of practice, the range of levels at which practitioners work and how these disparate elements relate to the issues surrounding health inequalities.

In Britain, after years of official neglect, reducing inequalities in health is now a matter of urgent public policy concern Department of Health, a ; Scottish Office Department of Health, The priority attached to this matter by the current government was signalled by the commissioning of an independent inquiry Department of Health, b.

Despite a lengthy research tradition in this area which in itself is an important component of advocacy for healthexisting accounts for health inequalities are not yet fully developed, and much remains to be discovered about the mechanisms that create and sustain them HEA, Structural, material and psycho-social explanations and interpretations have all contributed to a rich and steadily expanding body of knowledge, a full discussion of which is beyond the scope of this paper.

Individualistic explanations of health inequalities, in terms of unhealthy lifestyles and choices, still exist, although epidemiology and the social sciences have produced extensive evidence of the harmful impact on health of poverty, deprivation and social exclusion at both individual and population levels Wilkinson, ; McIntyre and Hunt, ; Bartley et al.

This paper offers a conceptual framework that could be used to reflect on the polysemic role of advocacy in health promotion and its potential for addressing health inequalities. Advocacy is also seen as a lobbying activity within public health and as such has a long history.

In recent years this usage has become increasingly common within the health promotion literature. This approach acknowledges that barriers to health can lie beyond the control of individuals, and that structural factors need to be addressed if health inequalities are to be reduced.

Both types can be categorized as representational advocacy.

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Journal of Education and Health Promotion: Browse articles A In the unfortunate event of a work-related injury, OHS is available.

However, health promotion explicitly espouses values of democratic participation, community development and empowerment, wherein disadvantaged individuals or groups are enabled to represent themselves and lobby for their own health needs. The role of advocacy here is best categorized as facilitational rather than representational—providing individuals and communities with the skills to tackle and redress inequalities in health.

Other definitions and models of advocacy within health promotion exist. For example, advocacy may be seen as a confrontational activity, challenging powerful anti-health interests such as the tobacco lobby Wallack et al.THE REVISED AND UPDATED GUIDE FOR UNDERSTANDING AND USING INTERVENTION MAPPING.

Planning Health Promotion Programs is the go-to reference in the field. Now in its fourth edition, this volume offers students and practitioners an effective guide to the overall planning process. Journal of Education and Health Promotion (JEHP) is an open-access peer-reviewed publication which functions under the leadership of and international editorial board from diverse disciplines such as medicine, medical education, statistics, psychology, nursing and midwifery, social work, public health and social initiativeblog.com its interdisciplinary approach, the journal provides a platform for.

The medical approach to health promotion

ABSTRACT This is a Health Evidence Network (HEN) synthesis report seeking to determine the effectiveness of health promotion in schools and, more specifically, the effectiveness of the “health promoting schools” approach.

The medical approach This approach focuses on activity which aims to reduce morbidity and premature mortality. Activity is targeted towards whole populations of high-risk groups. This kind of health promotion seeks to increase medical interventions which will prevent ill health and premature death.

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