Relations in the atlantic world in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

Originating within transatlantic Quaker networks, it soon spread to non-conformist Protestant groupings and the evangelical movement. In particular, it was British intellectual and financial engagement that carried the cause to Europe, especially France. Interaction between the various national abolitionist movements followed, both in terms of personal contacts and intellectual and cultural transfer literature, pamphlets, symbolism, and reasoning.

Relations in the atlantic world in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

The focus is on the increasing diversity and volume of goods exchanged, and the reciprocal enrichment of material cultures between the continents.

In this way, the article creates a vivid picture of the emergence of the global market and the beginnings of global competition. It also seeks to identify the central driving forces behind the successive periods of intensification of trade and interaction from the late Middle Ages to the modern period.

Relations in the atlantic world in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

Finally, this study describes the increasing interconnection of the economic regions of the Orient and the Occident, as well as the interdependence of the two. InhaltsverzeichnisTable of Contents General Trends in Development Trade played a more central role in the mercantilist period of European history from to — sometimes referred to as early capitalism or trade capitalism — than in almost any other period.

When in human history did the first exchange of goods between Europe and the other four continents of AfricaAsiaAmerica and Australia occur? Where are the origins of what one could describe as on-going exchange, as established economic relations to be found?

These questions refer to an even larger global context because the global economic edifice changed fundamentally from "proto-globalization" to globalization.

Relations in the atlantic world in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

From the 16th century totrade within Europe at all times constituted the most significant portion of global trade, and the volume of that trade grew disproportionately quickly during the early modern period and into the modern period.

The transition from individual production to mass production and the convergence of prices of goods and materials made transactions considerably easier, thereby accelerating integration. Starting in the late Middle Ages at the latest and continuing at least into the 19th century, Europe dominated most developments in international trade.

From the end of the 19th century, North America began to exert a stronger influence on the global economy. Europe Becomes Increasingly Central from the Late Middle Ages In the early part of the last millennium, population movement and the cultivation of new territories increased as a result of the crusades and the eastward expansion of the German-speaking population.

Inthere were five cities in Europe with populations greater thanThe reasons why Europe was able to gain a significant economic advantage over the other continents during the course of the early modern period are complex in nature.

Initially, land — as the most important resource — played a central role, prompting landlords to engage in territorial expansion to gain ownership of more land.

Additionally, the distribution of land was an effective method of ensuring the loyalty of vassals. In the archaic societies of central and Eastern Europewhere low population density meant that migration and innovation rarely became necessary, this form of land ownership persisted for a long time, surviving into the 19th century in some cases.

In relatively densely populated regions — particularly in Western Europewhere land enclosure became increasingly common —, goods and knowledge were frequently exchanged, often across borders.


The leading states of the European continent usually showed themselves to be open to innovations. This applied both to technological and commercial innovations, the latter primarily originating in Italy.

Migration and communication were the real accelerating factors of European history. The specific mix of Italian city states, principalities, bishoprics, kingdoms, etc.

The "permanent incongruence" of economic, political and cultural factors explains the competitive dynamic of the continent.

The advanced system of education and the early institutionalization of centres of artisanal and early-industrial training and production also played their part.

Frequently bought together

The liberalization of trade, craftsmanship and industrial labour, as well as the emergence of parliamentary democracy provided an essential basis for the generation of economic growth, which was accompanied from the 18th century by an impressive growth in population.

The restless search for new knowledge which was a central feature of modern humanism and the enlightenment gave the Old Continent its unmistakeable appearance. As mediators between worlds, merchants often maintained their own courier services.

For example, the Fuggers maintained a system of couriers between Augsburg and Venice in the 16th century. Per capita incomes and the standard of living rose much more quickly in these regions than elsewhere.

Economic Relations Between Europe and the World: Dependence and Interdependence — EGO

However, the rapid industrialisation of Central, Western and Northern Europe required considerable resources. In the 19th century, coal replaced wood as the main source of energy. In the 20th century, oil largely replaced coal.

Electricity, generated hydro-electrically, as well as coal, oil, nuclear energy and solar energy emerged as the most adaptable form of energy which was available almost everywhere.

The transportation of this energy played an increasingly important role in international trade. Great BritainGermany and France. Inthe last year in the first half of the 20th century which can be described as a "normal year", these three countries dominated large sections of the global economy.

In this context, it is possible to speak of an "oligopolization" of the global economy, on which — along with the USA — these three states exerted the greatest influence. While these three countries contained less than half of the population of Europe, they accounted for approximately three quarters of Europe's industrial production and three quarters of all trade between Europe and the rest of the world.

The high productivity levels of their economies were clearly reflected in the structure of their trade, i. As a result, these countries dominated the international flow of capital and direct foreign investment in the years before the First World War. In the absence of supranational economic institutions, Great Britain, which in London provided the central capital market of the world, in effect ensured that the global economy continued to function.

However, it proved impossible to resurrect this system after the First World War. InBritain forfeited its policy of free trade and gave precedence to the Commonwealth. Economic policy in the Third Reich followed Hjalmar Schacht's — Neuer Plan, with a series of discriminatory measures and a reorientation of foreign trade towards Eastern Europe and Latin America.AP World History Chapter STUDY.

PLAY. Atlantic Circuit. The network of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic system.

the Hausa city-states remained autonomous until the Sokoto Caliphate conquered them in the early nineteenth century. and eighteenth centuries designed to promote. The Atlantic Revolutions were a revolutionary wave in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Center for Eighteenth-Century Studies, Indiana University

It was associated with the Atlantic World during the era from the s to the s. It took place in both the Americas and Europe, including the United States (–), France and French-controlled Europe (–), Haiti ( The Brazilian Francisco de Souza, a key figure on the Slave Coast of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, established slave trading posts and built forts both in Aneho among the Mina (now in Togo) and in Ouidah among the Fon (now in Benin).

Ambivalent Allies: Anglo-Dutch Relations and the Struggle Against the Spanish Empire in the Caribbean, / Paul E. Kopperman; Trade, Plunder and Economic Development in Early English Jamaica, / Nuala Zahedieh; France, the Antilles, and Europe in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Renewals of .

Spanish pursuits of colonialism in the North American Southwest in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were built on ideas about family and kinship relations filtered through religious and socioracial understandings of human difference.

The Atlantic revolutions were distinctive from comparable upheavals elsewhere in the world during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries because they were closely connected to one another through a shared set of ideas.

Early American/Colonial History | History at Illinois