Guerrilla warfare as a continuum[ edit ] Simplified guerrilla warfare organization An insurgencyor what Mao Zedong referred to as a war of revolutionary nature, guerrilla warfare can be conceived of as part of a continuum. In ancient times these actions were often associated with smaller tribal policies fighting a larger empire, as in the struggle of Rome against the Spanish tribes for over a century. In the modern era they continue with the operations of insurgent, revolutionary and terrorist groups.
History[ edit ] The original theorizing was Military strategy essay by the Soviet Armed Forces in the s and s, particularly by Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov.
It slowly gained credence within official military circles, and other nations began exploring similar shifts in organization and technology. Interest in RMA and the structure of future U.
Many other militaries have also researched and considered RMA as an organizational concept—e. Pentagon officials in the United States changed the name of his Military strategy essay idea, which is how it became known as RMA.
At the time of the initial development of MTR, the Soviets anticipated that certain technologies, including energy weapons and robots, would be in use by at the latest. In place of some ground forces, these new technologies would be implemented in order to establish dominance on the battlefield.
Russians also believed that control of space would become essential for maintaining dominance in future conflicts. Soviets believed that it would be essential to control the satellite space around earth, in order to more effectively relay information.
They also anticipated the ability to use space as a medium in which they could deploy weapons. In the view of RMA proponents, American dominance through superior technology emphasized how the United States' technological advances reduced the relative power of the Iraqi military, by no means an insignificant rival, to insignificance.
According to Stephen Biddlepart of the growth in popularity of the RMA theory after the Gulf War was that virtually all American military experts drastically over-estimated the coalition casualty count. This led many experts to assume that their models of war were wrong—that a revolution of sorts had occurred.
Inthe U. Army mounted an exercise codenamed "Force 21", to test the application of digital technologies in warfare in order to improve communications and logistics by applying private-sector technologies adapted for military use.
Specifically, it sought to increase awareness of one's position on the battlefield as well as that of the enemy, in order to achieve increased lethality, greater control of the tempo of warfare, and fewer instances of friendly fire via improved identification friend or foe. Concurrently, other theorists tend to use the term as referring to revolutionary adaptations by military organisations that may be necessary to deal with the changes in technology.
Other theorists place RMA more closely inside the specific political and economic context of globalization and the end of the Cold War. When reviewing the gamut of theories, three fundamental versions of RMA come to the forefront.
The first perspective focuses primarily upon changes in the nation-state and the role of an organised military in using force. This approach highlights the political, social, and economic factors worldwide, which might require a completely different type of military and organisational structure to apply force in the future.
Edwards advocate of BattleSwarm tactics, a type of military swarmingCarl H. Ralph Peters emphasized the decline of the nation-state, the nature of the emerging international order, and the different types of forces needed in the near future.
The second perspective—most commonly assigned the term RMA—highlights the evolution of weapons technologyinformation technologymilitary organizationand military doctrine among advanced powers. These are intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissancecommand, control, communications and intelligence processingand precision force.
Advanced versions of RMA incorporate other sophisticated technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles UAVsnanotechnologyroboticsand biotechnology. Recently, the RMA debate focussed on " network-centric warfare " which is a doctrine that aims to connect all troops on the battlefield.
Finally, the third concept is that a "true" revolution in military affairs has not yet occurred or is unlikely to. Authors such as Michael E. O'Hanlon and Frederick Kaganpoint to the fact much of the technology and weapons systems ascribed to the contemporary RMA were in development long before and the Internet and information technology boom.
Several critics point out that a "revolution" within the military ranks might carry detrimental consequences, produce severe economic strain, and ultimately prove counterproductive.
Such authors tend to profess a much more gradual "evolution" in military affairs, as opposed to a rapid revolution.Military Strategy Essay Strategy is the art of utilizing military power or its threat to achieve political objectives. War can be analyzed at four different levels. Updated below.
In , the Academy of Military Sciences of the People’s Liberation Army of China issued a revised edition of its authoritative, influential publication “The Science of Military Strategy” (SMS) for the first time since China's Evolving Military Strategy [Joe McReynolds] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
For over two decades, the People's Republic of China has been engaged in a grand project to transform its military into a modernized fighting force capable of defeating the world's most powerful militaries through asymmetric means.
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Understanding Military Strategy and the Four Levels of War. When "strategy" gets thrown around by politicians and the media, you can bet it's being misused. Aug 22, · RAND research on military strategy has ranged from issues related to the tactics that lead to success in armed engagements, to work that describes how the size and deployment of one nation's military affects its political relationships with others.