Retrolisthesis is the most common direction of misalignment or subluxations of the spine encountered.
Pearson's coefficient r was used for statistical analysis. Some studies have demonstrated that disc degeneration occurs first. Then, an increase in the rotational and transitional forces leads to the overloading of the facet joints.
This, in turn, leads to a progressive degenerative change in the facet joint, with a lag of over two decades following the onset of disc degeneration 6710111215 Disc degeneration is believed to precede facet joint degeneration, and to be a primary cause of anterolisthesis 617 We also found that there was no statistically significant difference in the sagittal facet angle between anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis in this study.
Recent studies have suggested that factors such as global spinal sagittal alignment and pelvic parameters account for variations in degenerative patterns, including facet and disc pathology We think that the factors related to spinal sagittal balance may have a strong influence on the development of a different kind of spondylolisthesis, including retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis, based Mild retrolisthesis of l2 on l3 the results in this study.
Under specific conditions such as greater LL and high PI, anterolisthesis might develop with more overloaded power on the facet joint, which leads to facet joint degeneration as well as to disc degeneration.
In contrast to the development of anterolisthesis, there was a greater aggravation of disc degeneration than of facet degeneration with lower overloading power on the facet joints in retrolisthesis under contrasting conditions of sagittal profiles.
Retrolisthesis may be observed in any spinal segment, but a specifically high incidence has been reported in the lower lumbar spine 4.
In contrast, other authors have reported that retrolisthesis was more common in men and in the upper lumbar L2 and 3 spine Retrolisthesis is typically limited to mm of slippage in the lumbar spine, and sometimes results in foraminal stenosis, and more rarely in central stenosis 2. Reduced disc height, spinal sagittal alignment, endplate inclination, and the traction of erector spine muscles have been considered as causative factors related to retrolisthesis 4 Disc height was significantly reduced in segments with retrolisthesis, which underscores the importance of the disc for segmental stability "flat tire syndrome" 2.
According to a previous study 23the relative kyphotic disposition of the lumbo-sacral segment L5-S1 could be a trigger for a local compensatory mechanism such as retrolisthesis at L In our study, L3 was the dominant level that was prone to developing retrolisthesis, and the upper lumbar levels including L3 were the main sites at which anterolisthesis combined at the L4 level.
In terms of the lumbar lordotic curve, anterolisthesis was associated with a relatively greater LL than with retrolisthesis. We assume that there is a different developmental mechanism between retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis.
The greater LL leads to the development of anterolisthesis, especially on L4, because of the shearing force towards the anterior-inferior direction and the overloading power on the facet joint. The most common opinion is that LL flattens out with spinal problems and subsequent age-related degenerative changes However, most studies did not find a significant association between age and lumbar lordotic curvature 192536 In addition, Oliver and Middleditch 26 found no difference in the LL between males and females until middle age, but some studies found that females have a significantly greater lordosis angle degrees than males 8132534 There is evidence of a difference based on gender, with female dominance in group A exhibiting greater LL than that of other groups, which supports the theory above.
LL is significantly greater in individuals with a high body mass index 25and also increases in the late stages of pregnancy Many researchers have found a high correlation between LL and pelvic and thoracic parameters in the sagittal profile.
Greater LL correlates with a more horizontally inclined sacrum increased sacral slope, more vertical sacral endplateincreased PI, and increased PT 2030 This tendency among the lumbar and pelvic parameters was also found in our results, and it can be understood from the view of hyperextension as a compensatory mechanism.
The hyperextension of adjacent segments is a very common compensatory mechanism that limits the consequences of lumbar kyphosis in terms of gravity axis shift 2.
Hyperextension can be global multi-segmental or local mono-segmentaland efficient for placing the upper spine posteriorly. We found that lower degrees of LL and PI were noted in patients with retrolisthesis. In contrast, there was high LL and PI in patients with anterolisthesis.
As mentioned above, retrolisthesis may act in a compensatory role to move the gravity axis posteriorly in cases with low PI, which cannot increase a PT sufficiently as a compensatory mechanism. In patients with high PI, an increase in PT occurs as a compensatory mechanism when LL flattens out and the gravity axis moves anteriorly.
In addition, an increase in SS according to the change in PT leads to an increase in LL and hyperextension as a compensatory mechanism. In conclusion, we presumed two compensatory mechanisms, including lumbar hyperextension and increase of PT, in the case of a flattened lumbar spine.
The group with high lumbar lordosis group A exhibited high PI and PT, and developed anterolisthesis because of their high lumbar lordotic curvature. In contrast, the group with low PI group R could not compensate for their sagittal imbalance by increasing their PT and hyperextension sufficiently.Free, official coding info for ICDCM M - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICDCM conversion, index and annotation .
Retrolisthesis is found mainly in the cervical spine and lumbar region but can also be often seen in the thoracic spine.
Back to the top. 1 Classification COMPLETE RETROLISTHESIS: The body of one vertebra is posterior to both the vertebral body of the segment of the spine above as well as the segment below.
Answers from specialists on grade 1 retrolisthesis of l2 on l3. First: Symptoms guide treatment. Sounds like injections maybe worth a try. Answers from specialists on grade 1 retrolisthesis of l2 on l3. First: Symptoms guide treatment.
Sounds like injections maybe worth a try. Mar 20, · The patients with L3 retrolisthesis presented a lower LL (Table 4). Table 4. (L2 and 3) spine 18). Retrolisthesis is typically limited to mm of slippage in the lumbar spine, and sometimes results in foraminal stenosis, and more rarely in central stenosis 2).
I have had a Laminectomy L3 to S1 and a Micro Discectomy at L4-L5. When I woke up after the micro discectomy, I had lost feeling in my left leg from above the knee to mid calf. After 2 nerve conduction studies and a new MRI, doctor now says I have a large disc bulge at L1-L2.
Complete retrolisthesis: One vertebra moves backwards to both the spinal segments above and below. Partial retrolisthesis: One vertebra moves backwards either to a spinal segment below or above.
Stairstepped retrolisthesis: One vertebra moves backwards to the body of a spinal segment located above, but ahead of the one below.