References and Further Reading 1. Enlightenment Age Thinking The pre- and post-revolutionary era in American history generated propitious conditions for Enlightenment thought to thrive on an order comparable to that witnessed in the European Enlightenments.
Benjamin Franklin used this terminology when proposing that meetings of the Constitutional Convention begin with prayers  Historical background[ edit ] Deistic thinking has existed since ancient times. Among the Ancient Greeks, Heraclitus conceived of a logosa supreme rational principle, and said the wisdom "by which all things are steered through all things" was "both willing and unwilling to be called Zeus God.
Outside ancient Greece many other cultures have expressed views that resemble deism in some respects.
However, the word "deism", as it is understood today, is generally used to refer to the movement toward natural theology or freethinking that occurred in 17th-century Europe, and specifically in Britain. Natural theology is a facet of the revolution in world view that occurred in Europe in the 17th century.
To understand the background to that revolution is also to understand the background of deism. Several cultural movements of the time contributed to the movement. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, or, Chinese Knowledge Explained in Latin, published by a team of Jesuit missionaries at Paris in The veneration of that classical past, particularly pre-Christian Rome, the new availability of Greek philosophical works, the successes of humanism and natural science along with the fragmentation of Christianity and increased understanding of other faiths, all helped erode the image of the Catholic Church as the unique source of wisdom, destined to dominate the whole world.
In addition, study of classical documents led to the realization that some historical documents are less reliable than others, which led to the beginnings of biblical criticism. In particular, when scholars worked on biblical manuscripts, they began developing the principles of textual criticism and a view of the New Testament being the product of a particular historical period different from their own.
In addition to discovering diversity in the past, Europeans discovered diversity in the present. The voyages of discovery of the 16th and 17th centuries acquainted Europeans with new and different cultures in the Americas, in Asiaand in the Pacific. They discovered a greater amount of cultural diversity than they had ever imagined, and the question arose of how this vast amount of human cultural diversity could be compatible with the biblical account of Noah 's descendants.
As Herbert wrote in De Religione Laici Many faiths or religions, clearly, exist or once existed in various countries and ages, and certainly there is not one of them that the lawgivers have not pronounced to be as it were divinely ordained, so that the Wayfarer finds one in Europe, another in Africa, and in Asia, still another in the very Indies.
American Lit midterm. STUDY. PLAY. It is found on page in the author's introduction to Benjamin Franklin, in the paragraph that begins with "Franklin's observations about electricity Which of the following best describes the eighteenth-century movement known as "the Enlightenment"? a conviction that the human mind could. Transcript of Benjamin Franklin: Enlightenment Spirit & Representative American Early Years Later Years & Civic Involvement In General Enlightenment Ideals • Deism a natural progression from the Enlightenment. How did they reflect the general spirit of the Enlightenment—the belief that freedom was the natural state of humanity? America established itself as a nation and it directly bordered England's colony of Canada and the Spanish colony of Florida. well young by congressman standards, with an average age of Benjamin Franklin was an.
Religious conflict in Europe[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Europe had been plagued by sectarian conflicts and religious wars since the beginning of the Reformation.
Advances in scientific knowledge[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. October Learn how and when to remove this template message The 17th century saw a remarkable advance in scientific knowledge, the scientific revolution.
The work of CopernicusKeplerand Galileo set aside the old notion that the earth was the center of the universe. These discoveries posed a serious challenge to biblical and religious authorities, Galileo's condemnation for heresy being an example. In consequence the Bible came to be seen as authoritative on matters of faith and morals but no longer authoritative or meant to be on science.
Isaac Newton 's — mathematical explanation of universal gravitation explained the behavior both of objects here on earth and of objects in the heavens in a way that promoted a worldview in which the natural universe is controlled by laws of nature.
This, in turn, suggested a theology in which God created the universe, set it in motion controlled by natural law and retired from the scene. The new awareness of the explanatory power of universal natural law also produced a growing skepticism about such religious staples as miracles violations of natural law and about religious books that reported them.Benjamin’s religious ideas would attract admirers and critics alike and result in the outstanding success of his Poor Richard series.
He became an American icon of the Enlightenment movement of Europe as he worshiped all notions that the movement promulgated: reason, logic, and tolerance as opposed to dogmatism and bigotry. Benjamin Franklin is the Founding Father who winks at us. An ambitious urban entrepreneur who rose up the social ladder, from leather-aproned shopkeeper to dining with kings, he 4/5(K).
A short Benjamin Franklin biography describes Benjamin Franklin's life, times, and work. the Autobiography remains an important look into the history and sociology of 18th century America. Franklin in many ways embodies the Enlightenment spirit, and may even be thought of as the first prototypical "American.".
The official attitude of the French government toward the American Revolution in and was essentially a recognition of belligerency. This was the case at the fall arrival of the Continental Congress's official diplomatic mission to Europe led by Benjamin Franklin.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between and The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from . Benjamin Franklin is the ideal person to lead off The Atlas Society''s Year celebration, for many reasons.
First, Franklin was a man who lived wholly within the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, born in and dying in