He received a Ph. InKuhn accepted a post at the University of California, Berkeley, where in he became a full professor of history of science. Inhe was named M. In he returned to Boston, this time to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as professor of philosophy and history of science.
Kuhn, an industrial engineer, and Minette Stroock Kuhn, both Jewish. He graduated from The Taft School in Watertown, CT, inwhere he became aware of his serious interest in mathematics and physics.
He later taught a course in the history of science at Harvard from untilat the suggestion of university president James Conant. After leaving Harvard, Kuhn taught at the University of California, Berkeleyin both the philosophy department and the history department, being named Professor of the History of science in Kuhn interviewed and tape recorded Danish physicist Niels Bohr the day before Bohr's death.
Inhe joined Princeton University as the M. He served as the president of the History of Science Society from — Rockefeller Professor of Philosophy, remaining there until In Kuhn was diagnosed with lung cancer.
He died in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions[ edit ] Main article: In this book, Kuhn argued that science does not progress via a linear accumulation of new knowledge, but undergoes periodic revolutions, also called " paradigm shifts " although he did not coin the phrase in which the nature of scientific inquiry within a particular field is abruptly transformed.
In general, science is broken up into three distinct stages. Prescience, which lacks a central paradigm, comes first. This is followed by " normal science ", when scientists attempt to enlarge the central paradigm by "puzzle-solving".
Guided by the paradigm, normal science is extremely productive: Rather, they are concrete indices to the content of more elementary perceptions, and as such they are selected for the close scrutiny of normal research only because they promise opportunity for the fruitful elaboration of an accepted paradigm.
Far more clearly than the immediate experience from which they in part derive, operations and measurements are paradigm-determined. Science does not deal in all possible laboratory manipulations.
Instead, it selects those relevant to the juxtaposition of a paradigm with the immediate experience that that paradigm has partially determined. As a result, scientists with different paradigms engage in different concrete laboratory manipulations.
As anomalous results build up, science reaches a crisis, at which point a new paradigm, which subsumes the old results along with the anomalous results into one framework, is accepted. This is termed revolutionary science. In SSR, Kuhn also argues that rival paradigms are incommensurable —that is, it is not possible to understand one paradigm through the conceptual framework and terminology of another rival paradigm.
For many critics, for example David Stove Popper and After, this thesis seemed to entail that theory choice is fundamentally irrational: Whether Kuhn's views had such relativistic consequences is the subject of much debate; Kuhn himself denied the accusation of relativism in the third edition of SSR, and sought to clarify his views to avoid further misinterpretation.
Freeman Dyson has quoted Kuhn as saying "I am not a Kuhnian! The enormous impact of Kuhn's work can be measured in the changes it brought about in the vocabulary of the philosophy of science: The frequent use of the phrase "paradigm shift" has made scientists more aware of and in many cases more receptive to paradigm changes, so that Kuhn's analysis of the evolution of scientific views has by itself influenced that evolution.
Kuhn is credited as a foundational force behind the post- Mertonian sociology of scientific knowledge. Kuhn's work has also been used in the Arts and Humanities, such as by Matthew Edward Harris to distinguish between scientific and historical communities such as political or religious groups: Kuhn's notions of paradigms and paradigm shifts have been influential in understanding the history of economic thought, for example the Keynesian revolution and in debates in political science.
Accurate — empirically adequate with experimentation and observation Consistent — internally consistent, but also externally consistent with other theories Broad Scope — a theory's consequences should extend beyond that which it was initially designed to explain Simple — the simplest explanation, principally similar to Occam's razor Fruitful — a theory should disclose new phenomena or new relationships among phenomena He then goes on to show how, although these criteria admittedly determine theory choice, they are imprecise in practice and relative to individual scientists.
According to Kuhn, "When scientists must choose between competing theories, two men fully committed to the same list of criteria for choice may nevertheless reach different conclusions. Kuhn then goes on to say, "I am suggesting, of course, that the criteria of choice with which I began function not as rules, which determine choice, but as values, which influence it.
Polanyi—Kuhn debate[ edit ] Although they used different terminologies, both Kuhn and Michael Polanyi believed that scientists' subjective experiences made science a relativized discipline. Polanyi lectured on this topic for decades before Kuhn published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
Supporters of Polanyi charged Kuhn with plagiarism, as it was known that Kuhn attended several of Polanyi's lectures, and that the two men had debated endlessly over epistemology before either had achieved fame.Kuhn and Popper saw eye to eye on most issues but the key issue on which they were divided was about the extent to which Kuhn’s model of normal science was prescriptive.
Popper essentially recognized its insight but rejected any notion that it should be the way to go about doing science.
Rafe Champion and Brian Gladish, Independent Scholars. The Austrian-born philosopher Karl Popper charted new direction in the philosophy of science in the s with Logik der Forschung (The Logic of Scientific Discovery ).
MARXISM AS SCIENCE 74). Polanyi argued that sustaining these skills, passions, and commitments is a delicate process.
It requires a self-regulating community of scien-. Kuhn Structure of Scientific Revolutions. STUDY.
PLAY. Kuhn says that the crisis normally happens one or two decades before a new theory is accepted. (2) He also states that in scientific revolutions, the problems that lead to the crisis are normally old problems that were thought to have been long solved.
Popper said the difference. Karl Popper () was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century. He made significant contributions to debates concerning general scientific methodology and theory choice, the demarcation of science from non-science, the nature of probability and quantum mechanics, and the methodology of the social sciences.
He also criticises Kuhn for producing a highly selected theory, one which 'disregarded large chunks of 'normal science.' ' Popper also criticised Kuhn for 'paving the way for irrationalism and relativism,' the reason for this lying in two of Kuhn's statements.